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My Country, The Philippines

     In the Philippines, there are three levels of education, namely: elementary, secondary and tertiary. Public and private elementary and secondary education fall under the jurisdiction of the Department of Education while tertiary education falls under the jurisdiction of the Commission on Higher Education. Specifically, program design, policy formulation and standardization, curriculum and staff development in the elementary level and the high school level are managed by the Bureau of Elementary Education and the Bureau of Secondary Education, respectively. Non-formal education exists, and this type of education is handled by the Bureau of Non-Formal Education.

   The structural organization of the Department of Education consists of two main pillars: the central office, which carries out the overall administrative functions at the national level, and the field offices, which manage local and regional administration. The Department is headed by the Education Secretary. Next in rank are the Undersecretaries and Assistant Secretaries. As provided by law, the department can have a maximum of four Undersecretaries and four Assistant Secretaries.

Related Information

Constitutional Basis of Philippine Education

     Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution is on education, science and technology, arts, culture and sports. It consists of 19 sections and 21 subsections which deal with 5 major topics, namely: education, language, science and technology, arts and culture, and sports. Some of its provisions are highlighted in this section and these are the following:

 1) It mandates the State to protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education and to make such education accessible to all.

 2) It mandates the State to establish, maintain and support a complete, adequate and integrated system of education.

 3) It mandates the State to provide for a system of free public education in the elementary and secondary levels and a system of scholarship grants, student loan programs, subsidies and other incentives to deserving and under-privileged students.

 4) It encourages (and recognizes the value of) non-formal, informal and indigenous learning systems and self-learning which respond to community needs.

 5) It requires all educational institutions to incorporate the study of the Constitution in their curricula, inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love for humanity, promote respect for human rights and the appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, and encourage critical and creative thinking.

 6) It grants academic freedom to all institutions of higher learning.

 7) It mandates the State to enhance the right of teachers to professional advancement.

 8) It mandates the State to give the highest budgetary priority to education.

 9) It makes Filipino as the national language of the Philippines and adopts English and Filipino as the official languages.

10) It mandates the State to give priority to research and development and innovation and to protect the rights of scientists, inventors, artists and other gifted citizens to their intellectual property.

11) It mandates the State to preserve and enrich the Filipino national culture based on the principles of unity in diversity and free expression.

12) It designates the State as patron of the arts and letters.

13) It mandates the State to protect the rights of indigenous cultural communities and to use these rights as inputs for national plans and policies.

14) It mandates the State to promote physical education and sports programs in order to instill self-discipline and foster teamwork and excellence for the development of a healthy and alert citizenry.

Some Legal Bases of Philippine Education

EDUCATIONAL DECREE OF 1863: The decree provided for the establishment of primary school for boys and girls in each town of the country.

ACT NO. 74 OF 1901: Enacted into law by the Philippine Commission, the Act created the Department of Public Instruction, laid the foundations of the public school system in the Philippines, provided for the establishment of the Philippine Normal School in Manila and made English as the medium of instruction.

ACT NO. 1870 OF 1908: The law served as the legal basis for the creation of the University of the Philippines.

VOCATIONAL ACT OF 1927: Also known as Act No. 3377, the Vocational Act as amended by other acts laid the foundations of vocational education in public schools and made provisions for its support.

EDUCATION ACT OF 1940: Also known as Commonwealth Act No. 586, the Education Act laid the foundations for the present six-year elementary course and made provisions for its support.

REORGANIZATION ACT OF 1947: The Act placed public and private schools under the supervision and control of the Bureau of Public and Private Schools.

REPUBLIC ACT 5250 OF 1966: The Act provided the legal basis for the implementation of a ten-year teacher education program in special education.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS (DECS) ORDER NO. 25 OF 1974: Popularly known as the Bilingual Education Program of 1974, the Order required the use of English as medium of instruction for science and mathematics subjects and the use of Filipino as medium of instruction for all other subjects in the elementary and high school levels.

PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1006 OF 1976: The Decree was a legal and formal recognition of teachers as professionals and teaching as a profession.

REPUBLIC ACT 6655 OF 1988: Popularly known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988, the Act created a system of free education in public high schools.

*Literacy Rate in the Philippines

Simple Literacy - 92.3% of Filipinos can read and write as of year 2000

Functional Literacy - 84.1% of Filipinos can read, write and compute, or can read, write, compute and comprehend as of year 2003

*Source: National Statistics Office of the Philippines Website

Click Or Press The Underlined Titles To View

"Official Name, Titles Associated with the Philippines, National Symbols, Location and Description, Government, Socio-Political Structure, Languages and Dialects, Language Info"
"Education in General, Constitutional Basis of Philippine Education, Some Legal Bases of Philippine Education, Literacy Rate in the Philippines"
"Geography, Landscape, Natural Resources, Seasons and Climate, Minerals, Biodiversity, Nature Conservation and Protected Areas, Animal Info"
"General Information on the Philippines, Places, Manila, Quezon City, Tourist Spots, Provinces, Regions"

Alex Angara Moises. Advance Thematic Collector. Philippines