Ngayong Araw Sa Kasaysayan Ng Pilipinas
(This Day In Philippine History)
Disiyembre 30: Araw Ni Rizal
(December 30: Rizal's Day)
Chronology of Events in the Life of Jose Rizal
1861 - Jose Rizal was born on June 19, 1861 in the town of Calamba in Laguna. His
parents were Francisco Mercado Rizal and Teodora Alonzo Realonda.
1864 - Young Jose learned the alphabet at the age of three. His first teacher was
1867 - At the age of five, Rizal manifested his artistic talents through sketching
and wax-and-clay moulding. Before the age of six, he acquired the skills to read and write.
1869 - Rizal wrote his first poem in Filipino which was entitled, "Sa Aking mga Kababata"
("To My Fellow Children"). The main theme of the poem was love of one's native language and it was Rizal's earliest expression
of nationalistic sentiment.
1876 - Young Rizal remembered his hometown with fondness while he was studying in
a school located in another town of Laguna and wrote the poem, "In Memory of My Hometown."
1877 - Rizal earned his bachelor of arts degree with the highest honor at Ateneo.
During the following year, he passed the licensure examination in surveying.
1879 - Rizal won the first prize in a literary contest. The prize-winning poem, "La
Juventud Filipina" ("To the Filipino Youth"), was an inspirational poem which strongly encouraged the Filipino youth to apply
their genius in the various fields of human work since they were the hope of the Fatherland. The poem was the first great
poem in Spanish written by a Filipino.
1882 - Rizal completed his medical course at the University of Santo Tomas.
1884 - Dr. Jose Rizal earned a medical degree at the Universidad Central de Madrid.
One year later, he completed his course in philosophy and letters.
1886 - Dr. Rizal left Spain for Germany to study ophthalmology at the University
of Hiedelberg. In spring of 1886, he wrote the poem, "To the Flowers of Hiedelberg."
1887 - The first novel of Dr. Rizal was published in Berlin, Germany. The novel,
"Noli Me Tangere" ("Touch Me Not"), was a critical socio-political study of Philippine society under Spanish colonial administration.
For having written the book, Rizal won the admiration and respect of the Filipino people; at the same time, he became an enemy
of the Spanish friars and colonial administrators.
1889 - Dr. Rizal's article, "Los Agricultores Filipinos" ("The Filipino Farmers"),
was published in La Solidaridad which was the official newspaper of the Filipino Propaganda Movement in Spain. La Solidaridad
was organized by Filipino reformists who advocated for socio-political reforms in the Philippines and representation of the
Philippines in the Spanish Cortes.
1891 - Dr. Rizal's second novel, "El Filibusterismo," was published in Ghent, Belgium.
1892 - Dr. Rizal organized the Liga Filipina in Tondo, Manila. The Liga's aims were
the following: 1) Unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous and homogenous body; 2) Mutual protection in every
want and necessity; 3) Defense against all violence and injustice; 4) Encouragement of instruction, agriculture and commerce;
and 5) Study and application of reforms. One of the founders of the Liga was Andres Bonifacio who was to become a revolutionary
hero. Three days after the Liga was formed, Rizal was arrested by Spanish authorities. Eight days later, he was deported to
Dapitan in Mindanao where he remained for four years.
1896 - In a military court, Rizal was falsely accused of leading the Philippine revolution
by Spanish officials. The court's decision was a death penalty sentence for Rizal. On December 30, 1896, Dr. Jose Rizal was
executed by firing squad in Bagumbayan field.